4a investigating local landforms and how wind, water, or ice have shaped and reshaped them (e.g. severe weather).

4b using or building models to simulate the effects of how wind and water shape and reshape the land (e.g., erosion, sedimentation, deposition, glaciation).

4c identifying sudden and gradual changes that affect the Earth (e.g. sudden change = flood; gradual change = erosion caused by oceans).

What do these GSEs mean? What subtopics do students need to address to understand these GSEs?

What ideas to students need to understand before they can address the topics described above?

What misconceptions are students likely to have about these topics?

What phenomena and representations help students understand these topics?

What activities or activity sequences can be used to address these GSEs?